SEO is not the easiest competency to pick-up quickly and fully, but following the right people and reading the right sites can help you get there.
Use these SEO tools
- Google Webmaster Tools
- htaccess tester
- Microsoft Excel (yeah, that one)
- MozCast (SEO volatility report)
- Screaming Frog
- SEO Site Tools Chrome Extension (by Carter Cole)
- SERPs Volatility Index
- Xenu Link Sleuth
Some of my best SEO resources
- Official Google Webmaster Tools Blog
- SEO by the Sea (Bill Slawski)
- The Advanced Guide to SEO
This list will be continually added to as I find, recall and stumble upon sites I think are good resources.